Ditching Fossil Fuels

By the end of today, Congress will have passed the largest climate bill in US history.

This newspaper has already covered the bill Main Objectives And that The back story of how they came together. Today, I’d like to go into more detail and explain how it can help people and businesses ditch the dirty energy that contributes to global warming.

The bill’s climate provisions are mainly a collection of subsidies for non-carbon-emitting energy such as solar, wind and nuclear power. Without those subsidies, polluting fossil fuels are still cheap. Subsidies try to give clean energy an edge.

“I don’t want to exaggerate: it really changes everything,” said Jesse Jenkins, a climate policy expert at Princeton University. “This will effectively shift the economic case away from dirty energy to clean energy for everyone.”

For consumers, subsidies will reduce the cost of electric vehicles, solar panels, heat pumps and other energy-efficient home improvements. You can claim the subsidy through a tax filing; As a separate exemption if you do not pay tax; Or, in some cases, immediately when you make a purchase.

Let’s say you want to buy one of the cheapest, new electric vehicles on the market right now, priced around $40,000. To get the subsidy, you first need to make sure the car qualifies; The bill would, among other things, require vehicles to be assembled in North America. (Ask the car dealer or manufacturer to find out.) Then, make sure you qualify; Individual taxpayers cannot earn more than $150,000 per year, for example. And, given the high demand, you have to pre-order the car.

If you meet the requirements, you can claim up to $7,500 in tax credits — effectively bringing the cost of a $40,000 vehicle down to $32,500.

The same is the tax credit for new cars. For used cars, there will be a small tax credit of up to $4,000. The goal of both credits is to even the playing field: fossil fuel-burning cars are still cheaper than electric vehicles. With the credits, electric cars will be close in price to, if not cheaper than, similar nonelectric vehicles.

For home improvement, the process will be different, but the basic idea is the same. For a typical $20,000 rooftop solar installation, tax credits will reduce the cost to $6,000. There are also subsidies for heat pumps, electric stoves and other energy-efficiency projects. All of these changes are hoped to make them more affordable for everyday Americans, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and expanding the market for clean energy.

The bill also includes several benefits for businesses. For example, they can claim credits for replacing conventional cars with electric cars, saving 30 percent on the cost of each vehicle.

Another set of incentives will encourage businesses to produce and use clean energy. Similar credits have existed in the past, but they often expire after a year or two – creating unpredictable boom and bust cycles for investors and businesses. At this point, Congress has been establishing credits for at least a decade, helping to create greater certainty. And the credits will apply for the first time to publicly owned utilities and nonprofits, a large segment of U.S. electricity providers.

The bill includes a compromise: require more leasing of federal land and water for oil and gas projects. Senator Joe Manchin, The The most conservative Democrat in the SenateDemanded this provision.

But experts say it will have a modest impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, the bill would deduct at least 24 tons of carbon emissions for every ton of emissions under the oil and gas provision. Energy InnovationA think tank.

“It’s a trade-off,” my colleague Coral Davenport, who covers energy and environmental policy, told me. “But in terms of emissions impact, it’s a good deal.”

The bill would make clean energy and electric vehicles much cheaper for many Americans. Over time, that will likely make it more affordable for the rest of the world, as more competition and innovation in the US allows cheaper, better products to be shipped around the world.

And will be Move closer to America According to three independent analyses, President Biden aims to cut greenhouse emissions by half of their peak by 2030.

The bill is also a sign that America is starting to take climate change seriously. This will give American diplomats more credibility as they ask other countries like China and India to do the same.

Still, many scientists believe the U.S. will eventually need to do more to avoid serious damage from climate change. “This bill is really just the beginning,” said Leah Stokes, a climate policy expert at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Beef in the Athletic Division: Kentucky men’s basketball coach John Calipari wants a flashy new practice facility. And he wants it as soon as possible – Because he works at a “basketball school”. Kentucky football coach Mark Stoops will request a separation. A classic SEC feud.

A common motif in Japanese animation is the embrace – two characters collide in an embrace, often falling through the air. An essay by Times critic Maya Phillips explains how hugs became an important part of the art form.

The anime is characterized by exaggeration, in its characters, structure and action, but is shameless in its depictions of romance. A dramatic hug meets both criteria, she writes: “A hug between lovers or family or friends is an expression of intimacy that anime can enhance.”

Read the essay, J Imagines many of the anime’s iconic hugs.

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